Answer 3B

A simple series of frame grabs contains little information about the temporal unfolding of the actions. To add this information to the transcript, we may want to unpack the 4.8 gap in line 18 in this way:

or, alternatively like this, to capture the temporal relationships visually:

In the above, following Goodwin’s conventions, each dash stands for a tenth of a second silence and each plus sign marks a second boundary.

The resulting transcript will look like this:

Discuss pluses and minutes of this representation.